If you have the idea of installing a solar photovoltaic system in your home you should know that this photovoltaic system is made up of different devices that make it work properly and one of these devices are solar panel inverters
SOLAR PANEL INVERTERS
Now we will try to understand how investors work and the different types that we can find in the market.
What is a solar panel inverter?
The solar panel inverters are responsible for transforming the direct current of the photovoltaic panels into alternating current for domestic use.
These appliances can be directly connected to home electricity, they are responsible for transforming the direct current of the panels photovoltaic into alternating current for domestic use. These appliances can be directly connected to home electricity
What is the use of a solar panel inverter?
The solar inverters are responsible for transforming the direct current of the photovoltaic panels into alternating current for domestic use. These appliances can be directly connected to home electricity.
The inverter monitors the volume, frequency and phase of the home line and produces a pure sine wave whose frequency and phase equals home electricity but with a larger volume. The solar inverter will supply power to the home’s electricity when it is turned on.
When the solar panels are connected to these inverters, the home light meter will reduce the speed of rotation or turn in the opposite direction. The inverters use several solar panels connected in parallel, maximizing the output of the direct current of the solar energy system. If one of the solar panels is defective or does not receive sunlight at the direct current output, it will be affected to the minimum, resulting in the opposite of when the panels are connected in series.
The photovoltaic panels must be installed in a place where sunlight can give directly. It is then necessary to connect the cables of the solar panels to a junction box and from that same box remove a cable that will be connected to the terminals of the solar inverter.
Then connect the inverter to a socket that is available in your home. Once all these actions have been carried out, when solar panels receive sunlight, the photovoltaic system will convert solar energy into electrical energy valid for use in any part of the house.
All systems are connected in the same way. It is not advisable to connect more than one solar inverter to the same direct current cable that exceeds 250 watts.
If for some reason you need your solar energy system to have an output greater than 250 w, you can add more independent systems or use a higher capacity inverter, but never connect several since the consequences could be dire.
What is the function of an inverter in a photovoltaic installation?
The investors of photovoltaic solar panel are teams that are responsible for transforming the energy produced by a photovoltaic system, which is transmitted in the form of current continuous in current alternates for appliances and other electrical products can function at normal levels
How do solar panel inverters work ?
When our photovoltaic panels receive sunlight, the electrons begin to move inside the solar cells, which produces electricity from direct current. The circuits inside the photovoltaic cells collect that energy for us to use in our house.
This is where the solar inverter comes into play. Most homes use AC electricity, not direct current, so the energy produced by the solar panels is not useful by itself.
When solar panels collect sunlight and convert it into energy, it is sent to the inverter, which receives electricity from direct current and converts it into alternating current.
That is when solar electricity can power the appliances and electronic devices or, if we are producing more electricity than we need, store it in batteries or we could pour it into the electricity grid.
Main functions of the Photovoltaic Inverter
- Energy conversion : The solar photovoltaic inverter converts direct current into alternating current, which is the one used by all electrical appliances. It basically acts as a gateway between direct current and alternating current.
- Optimization of energy : Maximizes the generation of energy from solar panels. To do this, the panels are individually insulated in order to increase the production of energy, and therefore, improve the overall performance of the installation.
- Monitoring and protection : A solar inverter monitors the energy performance of the photovoltaic system, electrical activity and signals when problems arise. This information can be viewed on the device itself or from another location if the appropriate communication technology and online services are implemented.
- Constant operation : A photovoltaic installation is designed to provide power to the weather and in all weather conditions. The photovoltaic inverter offers a constant operation dissipating the heat in a consistent way.
All photovoltaic inverters have the same common task: converting solar DC power into useful AC power for our home. However, there are three different inverter technologies that we can choose for our solar panel system, and each of them works in a significantly different way.
String or chain inverters: a standard centralized inverter
Most small-scale solar energy systems use a chain inverter, also known as a “centralized” inverter. In a solar self-consumption installation with a chain inverter, each panel is connected in series.
When they produce energy, everything is sent to a single inverter, which is usually located on one side of the house, in the garage or in the basement. The investor converts all the green energy generated by your solar panels into electricity that you can use in your home or business
Pros : Chain inverters are the lowest cost option and they are a proven technology. They are also easy to maintain, since they are easily accessible.
Cons : If our system uses a string inverter, it will only produce as much useful electricity as the solar panel that produces least. The generation of electricity in an installation with a string inverter can suffer the “bottleneck” effect, or be drastically reduced, if only one or two of the panels are shaded or not working properly.
Ideal for : Housing with “unobstructed” roofs that consistently receive radiation throughout the day, and for owners seeking photovoltaic systems at the lowest cost.
If a string inverter can be considered as a “centralized” inverter, the microinverters are “distributed” inverters. In photovoltaic installations with microinverters each solar panel has a small solar inverter installed. Instead of sending power from all the panels to a single inverter, the micro-inverter systems convert solar DC power into AC power on the roof itself.
Pros : Microinverters are more efficient than string inverters. The installations of solar panels that enjoy this technology, continue to produce energy, even if one or two of the panels of the system have a lower performance. The microinverters also allow monitoring the performance of specific solar panels, which facilitates the identification of production problems if necessary.
Cons : Microinverters cost more than a chain inverter, and can be harder to maintain or repair in the event of a problem, since they are on the cover.
Ideal for : Installation with solar panels with different orientations, owners who want to maximize the production of solar energy in a small space, and houses that have “complicated” covers with pediments, chimneys or other objects that can cause shadows.
Power optimizers: an option located on the panel to connect to a chain inverter
Power optimizers can be considered as a compromise between chain inverters and microinverters. Like the microinverters, the power optimizers are located on the roof next to – or integrated with – the individual solar panels. However, systems with power optimizers continue to send power to a centralized inverter.
Power optimizers do not convert DC electricity into alternating current at the site of the solar panel. Rather, they “condition” electricity in direct current by setting the voltage of the electricity, at the moment it is sent to the photovoltaic inverter. An installation of solar panels with power optimizers is more efficient than one that only uses a chain inverter.
Pros : Like microinverters, power optimizers can improve the efficiency of the installation, and are less expensive than microinverters. They also offer the advantage of monitoring the performance of each solar panel individually, and reducing the effect of shadows on the performance of the installation.
Cons : An installation with power optimizers will cost more than an installation with a chain inverter.
Ideal for : Owners who are willing to pay more to increase the efficiency of their solar panel system, but who do not want to acquire in microinversores.
What is an investor on grid?
A photovoltaic solar energy system that is only connected to a power supply network.
When solar energy is available, the system will return the energy generated by the sun back to the power grid.
What is an Off-Grid Inverter?
An independent photovoltaic system refers to a system, which is not connected to the electricity supply network.
The electricity it consumes comes exclusively from the energy generated through photovoltaic generators. These types of systems store excess energy in batteries.
What is a hybrid inverter?
The hybrid inverters are those that permit the use of conventional mains and battery use, the current goes from DC to AC through the hybrid inverter . They provide great versatility to the installation of a home.
Hybrid inverters are those that combine solar energy produced by solar panels , batteries and the conventional electricity grid .
It has a multitude of applications in which photovoltaic installations for self-consumption stand out . The hybrid inverter transforms the direct current of the panels into alternating current for domestic consumption.
These inverters during the day are supplied primarily by solar panels, when it is not enough to do so from the batteries and when the batteries are at low levels of charge the hybrid inverter has the particularity that it will be supplied by the conventional electricity network.