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SOLAR PANEL CLASSES PHOTOVOLTAIC : ¿ What are they ?

SOLAR PANEL CLASSES PHOTOVOLTAIC
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Para aprovechar los beneficios de la energia solar debes pensar en instalar paneles solares para generar electricidad de manera limpia y segura para tu hogar.

Estás pensando en poner paneles fotovoltaicos en tu hogar para así ahorrar en la factura de la luz, pero en cuanto te pones a investigar un poco compruebas que existen muchas clases de paaneles solares fotovoltaicos  y no sabes muy bien cuáles te convienen más y en qué se diferencian.

SOLAR PANEL CLASSES PHOTOVOLTAIC

En este artículo hablaremos de los distintas clases de paneles solares fotovoltaicos más comunes para uso doméstico que hay disponibles en el mercado (monocristalinos, policristalinos, y de capa fina) y en qué condiciones resultan idóneos.

Alrededor del 90% de la tecnología fotovoltaica se basa en el uso de alguna variación del silicio. El porcentaje de estos paneles destinados a uso doméstico es todavía mayor.

El silicio usado en fotovoltaica puede tener varias formas. La mayor diferencia entre ellas es la pureza del silicio usado. Cuanto más puro es el silicio, mejor alineadas están sus moléculas, y mejor convierte la energía solar en electricidad.

Por tanto, la eficiencia de los paneles solares va de la mano con la pureza del silicio, pero los procesos para aumentar la pureza son muy caros. Por ello, a la hora de elegir un buen panel, lo mejor es tener en cuenta la relación coste-eficiencia por m2.

El silicio cristalino es la base de las celdas monocristalinas y policristalinas.

 

Paneles monocristalinos de celdas de silicio

Las celdas solares de silicio monocristalino (mono-Si), son bastante fáciles de reconocer por su coloración y aspecto uniforme, que indica una alta pureza en silicio, tal como se muestra en la imagen:

SOLAR PANEL CLASSES PHOTOVOLTAIC
Panel solar fotovoltaico monocristalino

Las celdas monocristalinas se fabrican con bloques de silicio o ingots, que son de forma cilíndrica. Para optimizar el rendimiento y reducir los costes de cada celda solar monocristalina, se recortan los cuatro lados de los bloques cilíndricos para hacer láminas de silicio, y que les da esa apariencia característica.

Una de las formas más sencillas para saber si tenemos delante un panel solar monocristalino o policristalino, es que en el policristalino las celdas son perfectamente rectangulares y no tienen esquinas redondeadas.

Ventajas de los paneles solares monocristalinos:

  • Los paneles solares monocristalinos tienen las mayores tasas de eficiencia puesto que se fabrican con silicio de alta pureza. La eficiencia en estos paneles está por encima del 15% y en algunas marcas supera el 21%.
  • La vida útil de los paneles monocristalinos es más larga. De hecho, muchos fabricantes ofrecen garantías de hasta 25 años.
  • Suelen funcionar mejor que paneles policristalinos de similares características en condiciones de poca luz.
  • Aunque el rendimiento en todos los paneles se reduce con temperaturas altas, esto ocurre en menor medida en los policristalinos que en los monocristalinos.

 

Desventajas de los paneles monocristalinos:

  • Son más caros. Valorando el aspecto económico, para uso doméstico resulta más ventajoso usar paneles policristalinos o incluso de capa fina.
  • Si el panel se cubre parcialmente por una sombra, suciedad o nieve, el circuito entero puede averiarse. Si decide poner paneles monocristalinos pero cree que pueden quedar sombreados en algún momento, lo mejor es usar micro inversores solares en vez de inversores en cadena o centrales. Los micro inversores aseguran que no toda la instalación solar se vea afectada por sólo un panel afectado.
  • El proceso Czochralski es el usado para la fabricación de silicio monocristalino. Como resultado, se obtienen bloques cilindrícos. Posteriormente, se recortan cuatro lados para hacer las láminas de silicio. Se derrocha una gran cantidad de silicio en el proceso.

 

Paneles policristalinos de silicio

Los primeros paneles solares policristalinos de silicio aparecieron en el mercado en 1981. A diferencia de los paneles monocristalinos, en su fabricación no se emplea el método Czochralski. El silicio en bruto se funde y se vierte en un molde cuadrado. A continuación se enfría y se corta en láminas perfectamente cuadradas.

SOLAR PANEL CLASSES PHOTOVOLTAIC
Panel solar fotovoltaico policristalino

Ventajas de los paneles policristalinos:

  • El proceso de fabricación de los paneles fotovoltaicos policristalinos es más simple, lo que redunda en menor precio. Se pierde mucho menos silicio en el proceso que en el monocristalino.

 

Inconvenientes de los paneles policristalinos:

  • Los paneles policristalinos suelen tener menor resistencia al calor que los monocristalinos. Esto significa que en altas temperaturas un panel policristalino funcionará peor que un monocristalino. El calor además puede afectar a su vida útil, acortándola.
  • La eficiencia de un panel policristalino se sitúa típicamente entre el 13-16%, debido a que no tienen un silicio tan puro como los monocristalinos.
  • Mayor necesidad de espacio. Se necesita cubrir una superficie mayor con paneles policristalinos que con monocristalinos.

 

Paneles solares fotovoltaicos de capa fina

El fundamento de estos paneles es depositar varias capas de material fotovoltaico en una base. Dependiendo de cuál sea el material empleado podemos encontrar paneles de capa fina de silicio amorfo (a-Si), de teluluro de cadmio (CdTe), de cobre, indio, galio y selenio (GIS/CIGS) o células fotovoltaicas orgánicas (OPC)

Dependiendo del tipo, un módulo de capa fina presentan una eficiencia del 7-13%. Debido a que tienen un gran potencial para uso doméstico, son cada vez más demandados.

SOLAR PANEL CLASSES PHOTOVOLTAIC
Panel solar fotovoltaico de capa fina

Ventajas de los paneles fotovoltaicos de capa fina:

  • Se pueden fabricar de forma muy sencilla y en grandes remesas. Esto hace que sean más baratos que los paneles cristalinos
  • Tienen una apariencia muy homogénea
  • Pueden ser flexibles, lo que permite que se adapten a múltiples superficies.
  • El rendimiento no se ve afectado tanto por las sombras y altas temperaturas.
  • Son una gran alternativa cuando el espacio no es problema.

Desventajas de los paneles de capa fina:

  • Aunque son muy baratos, por su menor eficiencia requieren mucho espacio. Un panel monocristalino puede producir cuatro veces más electricidad que uno de capa fina por cada metro cuadrado utilizado.
  • Al necesitar más paneles, también hay que invertir más en estructura metálica, cableado, etc.
  • Los paneles de capa fina tienden a degradarse más rápido que los paneles monocristalinos y policristalinos, por ello los fabricantes también ofrecen menor garantía.

 

¿Qué panel solar necesito para mi caso?

Normalmente, lo normal es pedir presupuesto a varios profesionales que estudiarán tu caso y te podrán orientar en función de tu caso concreto. Podrían darse las siguientes circunstancias:

Que tengas espacio limitado

Para aquellas casas que tengan espacio limitado, los paneles cristalinos son la mejor opción. Aparte hoy en día, los paneles finos todavía no están muy extendidos por lo que muchos instaladores ni los ofrecen.

Normalmente encontrarás paneles de 180, 200 y 220 watios con las mismas dimensiones. Así que si el espacio es algo importante, escoge los que den más potencia.

Dentro de los cristalinos, los monocristalinos son más eficientes en cuanto a espacio aunque son más caros. Si tienes un panel monocristalino y uno policristalino, ambos de 220 watios, el policristalino será más pequeño.

 

Que busques el precio más bajo

Si lo que buscas es hacer la menor inversión posible, pide presupuestos de paneles de capa fina que son más baratos que los monocristalinos y policristalinos. Pero no olvides que también conllevan una mayor estructura y materiales adicionales, no te quedes sólo en el precio del panel en sí.

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