Saltar al contenido
Energia Solar Fotovoltaica.org

Photovoltaic cell

Te pido una ayuda dale me gusta a mi Fans page para que siga creciendo, muchas gracias

A Photovoltaic cell is the minimum unit of a solar panel, it is the heart of the panel, which produces electricity when the sun’s rays hit it.

solar cell  is a device capable of converting energy from solar radiation into electrical energy. The vast majority of solar cells that are currently commercially available are mono or polycrystalline silicon.

Photovoltaic cell

The first type is more widespread and although its elaboration process is more complicated, it usually presents better results in terms of its efficiency.

On the other hand, experimentation with materials such as Cadmium Tellurium or Indio-Copper Diselenide is leading the cells manufactured with these substances to situations close to commercial applications, with the advantages of being able to work with thin sheet technologies .

The word photovoltaic is composed of two terms: Photo = Light, Voltaic = Electricity. It is a device that converts sunlight directly into electricity.

What material are the photovoltaic cells made of?

Photovoltaic cells are made of special materials called semiconductors such as silicon, which is the most used material. When sunlight hits the cell a certain portion of it is absorbed into the semiconductor material. This means that the energy of the absorbed light is transferred to the semiconductor. The energy hits the free electrons allowing them to flow freely.

All fv cells have one or more electric fields that act to force electrons released by the action of light to flow in a certain direction. This flow of electrons is a current and by putting the metal contacts on the top and bottom of the cell fv we can draw the current to use it externally. This current, together with the cell voltage, defines the power that the solar cell can deliver.

Silicon has some special chemical properties, especially in its crystalline form. A silicon atom has 14 electrons arranged in three different layers. The first two layers, the closest to the center are completely filled. The outer shell is only semi full, because it has only four electrons.

A silicon atom will always seek to fill its last layer with 8 electrons. To do this he will share four electrons of his neighboring atom. This process forms the crystalline structure and this structure turns out to be important for this type of fv cells.

This pure silicon does not serve as a conductor, so silicon with impurities is used. Normally silicon structures with phosphorus are used since this having 5 electrons, leaves a free one not attached to the structure. By applying energy, for example in the form of heat, this electron is released from its position more easily than in a pure silicon structure.

What is silicon doping?

This process of adding impurities to silicon is called Dopping. When silicon is doping with phosphorus, a silicon called N-type results, because free electrons prevail. N-type silicon is much better conductor than pure silicon.

When silicon is doping with boron, which has 3 electrons in the last layer, it is called P-type silicon. P-type silicon, instead of having free electrons, has free holes. The holes are absence of electrons, thus carrying a charge opposite to that of the electron, that is, a positive charge. These move the same way electrons do.

How do photovoltaic cells work ?

The PV cells without an electric field would not work. This electric field can be formed by contacting an N-type silicon and a P-type silicon. At the junction there is a barrier that makes it difficult for electrons on the N side to cross to the P side, we have an electric field that separates the 2 sides. This field acts as a diode allowing electrons to flow from the P to N. side with the application of external energy.

When the photon-shaped light collides with our cell, it releases electron-hole pairs. Each photon will release exactly one electron leaving a free hole. If this happens close enough to the electric field, this will cause an electron to be sent to the N side and a hole to the P side. This causes the breakdown of the electrical neutrality. If an external path is also provided, the electrons will flow to their original side (P-type side) to join the holes.

The electrons that flow constitute the current and the electric field of the cell constitutes the voltage. With the current and voltage we have the power of the cell.

How much solar energy does the PV cell absorb?

Most cells can absorb about 25% and more likely 15% or less. This is because visible light is only part of the electromagnetic spectrum. And electromagnetic radiation is not monochromatic. The light can be separated into different wavelengths.

Photovoltaic cell

The light that hits has photons with a great variety of energy, it turns out that some do not have enough energy to form the hollow electron pair.

While other photons have much more energy. 
Only a certain amount of energy measured in electron volt is required to strike a free electron (1.1 eV is required for crystalline silicon).

This is called a band of energy interval of a material.

Photovoltaic cell
The optimal range of energy range is 1.4 eV for a cell made of a simple material. 
There are other losses, such as the internal resistance of the cell called the series resistance.

To minimize these losses, the cell is covered by a metal grid, an antireflective cover is placed on the grid and a glass cover on it is protected. This reduces losses by 5%.

Photovoltaic cell

Other materials

There is also polycrystalline silicon, but it is not more efficient than crystalline silicon.

These materials have different band ranges and appear to be sitonized at different wavelengths or at photons with different energies.

It has been proven that the use of two or more layers of different materials with different ranges of energy bands turns out to be very efficient.
The material with greater band is placed on the surface and below those that require photons with less energy. These cells are called multijuntiras, and can have more than one electric field.

Densely crystalline materials

Simple crystalline silicon

Sliced ​​from simple grown silicon crystal, these cells are 200 microns thick. The investigated cell has reached 24% efficiency, commercial modules exceed 15%.

Polytrital Silicon

Slice of silicon mold blocks, these cells are less expensive to manufacture and less efficient than simple silicon crystal cells. The investigated cells reach 18% efficiency and the commercial modules reach 14%.

Dendritic Networks

A film of simple silicon crystals taken from molten silicon, like a soap bubble, between two dendritic crystals.

Arsenide Gallium (GaAs)

A semiconductor III-V material from which they make high-efficiency PV cells, are used in concentrator systems and space power systems. Research says they reach 25% efficiency under sunlight and 28% under concentrated sunlight. The multi-joint cells are based on GaAs and related to III-V alloys have exceeded 30% efficiency.

Thin film materials

Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) 

The amorphous silicon that is a non-crystalline structure. First use in PV materials in 1974. In 1996, amorphous silicon constituted more than 15% of the worldwide PV production. Small experimental modules of Si-a exceed 10% efficiency, in commercial modules a range between 5-7% is reached. Used in consumer products, Si-a is the great promise for the construction of intergraded systems, replacing tinted glass with semi-transparent modules.

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)

A thin film of polycrystalline material, deposited by electrodeposition. Small laboratories have approached 16% efficiency, and with a commercial size module (7200-cm2) they measured 8.34% efficiency, and 7% module production.

Indian Copper Diselenide (CuInSe2, or CIS)

A film of polycrystalline material, which reaches an efficiency of 17.7%, in 1996, with a prototype power module reaches 10.2%. The difficulty in taking this technology is the difficulty of preventing the formation of defects during deposition that prevent the formation of uniform layers.

Concentrators

The concentrator system uses lenses to focus the light inside the solar cells. The Lenses, with a concentration radius of 10x to 500x, typically linear or point spotlights. The cells are usually silicon. GaAs cells and other materials have high conversion efficiency at high temperatures, but they are very expensive. The efficiency of the modules exceeds 17%, and concentrators are designed for a conversion efficiency that exceeds 30%.

The Reflectors can be used to increase the power output, increasing the intensity of the light in the modules, or prolonging their time.

Concentrator System: The lenses cannot center the scattered light, limiting their use of areas, such as desert areas, with a substantial number of clear days in the year.

Leer mas sobre los siguientes temas :

How to orient solar panels

Best Chinese solar panels 2019

Entradas relacionadas

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada.

Comentarios (30)

Appreciating the persistence you put into your site and in depth information you offer.
It’s awesome to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the
same out of date rehashed material. Wonderful read!

I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds to my Google account.

Helpful info. Fortunate me I discovered your
website by accident, and I’m stunned why this twist of fate did not
took place in advance! I bookmarked it.

I like the helpful information you supply for your articles.
I’ll bookmark your blog and check once more here regularly.
I am fairly certain I will be told a lot of new stuff proper right here!
Good luck for the next!

Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I to find It truly helpful & it
helped me out much. I hope to present one thing back and help others such as you aided
me.

whoah this blog is magnificent i love reading your posts.

Stay up the good work! You understand, a lot of people are searching
round for this information, you can aid them greatly.

hey there and thank you for your information ? I have definitely picked
up something new from right here. I did however expertise
some technical issues using this site, as I experienced to reload the website a lot of times previous to I could get it
to load properly. I had been wondering if your web hosting
is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and could
damage your high quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
Anyway I?m adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for a lot more of your respective fascinating
content. Make sure you update this again very soon..

Take a look at my blog Quit Smoking CBD Gummies (http://pf-mold.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=220626&do=profile&from=space)

What’s up to every body, it’s my first pay a
quick visit of this webpage; this web site carries awesome and really excellent material for readers.

Some times its a pain in the ass to read what people wrote but this internet site is
very user pleasant!

Look into my homepage – Muama Translator (http://www.fles.hlc.edu.tw/userinfo.php?uid=939246)

Hi everybody, here every one is sharing such familiarity,
thus it’s good to read this web site, and I used to visit this weblog every day.

Sweet blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo
News. Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News?

I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there!

Thank you

It’s not my first time to go to see this website, i am visiting this web page dailly and get nice facts
from here all the time.

Here is my web site; U Slim X Keto

Hey there! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new
apple iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading your blog
and look forward to all your posts! Carry on the superb work!

Very nice article. I definitely appreciate this site. Stick with
it!

I wanted to draft you the little note in order to say
thank you again on your pleasant thoughts you have shared on this site.
It’s simply remarkably open-handed with you to give publicly
all a number of people could have advertised as an electronic book to help
make some bucks for their own end, chiefly since you might have tried it if
you ever desired. The techniques as well served like a great way to be certain that other
people online have similar zeal just like my own to know more and more with respect
to this matter. I believe there are lots of more fun situations
in the future for people who browse through your blog.

Also visit my webpage Crypto Bank App Website (http://www.meteoritegarden.com/userinfo.php?uid=2697157)

As a Newbie, I am continuously searching online for articles that can be of assistance to me.

Thank you

my web page Divine Dynamic Keto Pills, https://sheriffptacentral.co.za,

Hi would you mind letting me know which web host you’re using?
I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different web browsers and I must say
this blog loads a lot quicker then most. Can you suggest a good web hosting provider at a fair price?

Kudos, I appreciate it!

Visit my web-site – Testol Max Male Enhancement

Do you have a spam problem on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was
curious about your situation; many of us have developed some nice
procedures and we are looking to trade techniques with other folks,
please shoot me an email if interested.

Feel free to surf to my site; VitaSilk

Hi there, this weekend is fastidious in favor of me,
as this occasion i am reading this fantastic informative post here at my residence.

my site – mega888 pc

Simple Ways on How to Download Full Version movies Or Full Length TV Shows

I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
Did you design this website yourself or did you hire someone
to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would like
to find out where u got this from. many thanks

Excellent post! We will be linking to this particularly great article on our website.

Keep up the great writing.

Everything published was very reasonable. But, consider this, what if you added a little content?
I mean, I don’t want to tell you how to run your blog, but suppose you added a title that grabbed people’s attention? I mean ▷Photovoltaic cell : What are they, what
are they for ? is kinda boring. You should peek at Yahoo’s front page and see how they create article
titles to grab people to open the links. You
might try adding a video or a related picture or two to grab readers interested about everything’ve written. Just my opinion, it could make
your blog a little livelier.

If some one wishes to be updated with hottest technologies afterward he must
be pay a visit this web site and be up to date daily.

law of torts book by ratanlal and dhirajlal pdf Microsoft Office Word Hack Gratuitement auta color book indigo

Traiteur Casino Crest Casino Jeux Gratuit Lady Majestic Star Casino Phone Number

Genuinely when someone doesn’t understand then its
up to other visitors that they will help, so here it takes place.

Feel free to surf to my page: Leaf Boss CBD Gummies

Plaque Commemorative Bd Capitaine Geze Marseille Entrepot Casino Carte Casino Adresse G Ant Casino Paris 13 Phothos

Hi there just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you know a few
of the pictures aren’t loading properly. I’m not sure why but I think
its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and
both show the same outcome.

my blog post: Spark Aura Anti Aging Serum (163.30.42.16)

Great site! I am loving it!! Will come back again. I am taking your feeds also

my homepage – Divine Dynamic Keto Pills (clubriders.men)

Hi there to all, how is everything, I think every one
is getting more from this site, and your views are good designed
for new viewers.