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Energia Solar


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El funcionamiento de un panel fotovoltaico se basa en las propiedades fisicas del silicio ,material con el que se fabrican las celdas solares


Ha oido hablar de los paneles solares o visto alguna vez uno? si la respuesta es si, seguramente se  ha preguntado cual es el funcionamiento de un panel solar fotovoltaico ?

Principio de funcionamiento de un panel solar

Los paneles solares capturan  la energía liberada por el sol y la convierten en electricidad.


Célula fotovoltaica, átomo, materiales semiconductores, electrón, dopaje y unión PN: esto explica el funcionamiento de un panel solar fotovoltaico y la transformación de la corriente continua en la corriente alterna.

Características importantes de los paneles solares fotovoltaicos

  • composición
  • Célula fotovoltaica
  • Átomos y electrones
  • Corriente actual y corriente alterna


Descripcion de paneles solares


Un panel solar produce electricidad gracias a numerosas células fotovoltaicas conectadas en serie o en paralelo . Cada celda produce alrededor de 0.5 voltios (V).

En la parte superior, un vidrio deja pasar la luz y la energía que transporta. En la parte inferior, un panel rígido protege el conjunto. El conjunto está soportado por un marco rígido que protege el panel de golpes .

Si mira un panel solar , lo reconocerá fácilmente como las células forman una especie de rejilla y el material del que están hechos emite tonos azules o grises . Un cable que sale del marco libera una corriente continua a voltaje constante .

Mi´ra el video y aprendé mas sobre el funcionamiento de paneles fotovoltaicos

En el siguiente video se explica de manera sencilla y didáctica el funcionamiento de paneles fotovoltaicos

Principio de funcionamiento de un panel solar: la física de los átomos.


Sin entrar en demasiados detalles, podemos darle una idea de el funcionamiento paneles fotovoltaicos o lo que sucede en las distintas capas que conforman un panel solar .
Para comprender bien el funcionamiento de los paneles solares, uno debe recordar que un átomo está compuesto por un núcleo alrededor del cual gravitan los electrones gravitados .

Las propiedades físicas del átomo dependen de la cantidad de electrones de esta capa externa.

Por propiedades físicas , entendemos su capacidad de unirse a otros átomos para formar moléculas, cristales y transformarse en iones .
Si los electrones se separan de estos átomos y se ponen en movimiento, se puede crear una corriente.

La célula fotovoltaica: materiales semiconductores


Una célula fotovoltaica está formada por materiales semiconductores que se encuentran en diferentes componentes electrónicos .

Para construir estos semiconductores, primero debemos elegir una familia de átomos que tenga 4 electrones en su capa externa : hablamos de átomos tetravalentes . Tienen el poder de agruparse de una manera organizada para formar un cristal.

Para saber como funciona un panel solar fotovoltaico tenemos que hacernos la idea general de que construir materiales semiconductores es introducir impurezas bien elegidas en esta estructura: se llama dopaje .
Si se inserta en este cristal de átomos que tienen tres electrones en su capa externa , entonces habrá un déficit de electrones. Dado que el electrón tiene carga negativa, que va a dar lugar a una carga positiva, y se habla de P dopaje .

Por el contrario, si se introducen los átomos que tienen 5 electrones en su capa externa, hay un exceso de electrones: por lo tanto el cristal está cargado negativamente y se habla de dopaje N .

Si una superficie de material dopado N se une a una superficie de material dopado P, se crea lo que se llama la unión PN .
En esta unión, las cargas negativas en un lado y las cargas positivas en el otro crean un campo eléctrico.

Energia solar fotovoltaica funcionamiento: célula fotovoltaica.


En el funcionamiento celula fotovoltaica ocurre el siguiente proceso. La celda consiste en una unión PN con una rejilla metálica en la parte superior y un colector de conductor en la parte posterior.
Los fotones de luz golpean el dopado de semiconductores N . Estos fotones transmiten su energía a los electrones que, por lo tanto, se liberan de la atracción del núcleo alrededor del cual gravitan .

El campo eléctrico de la unión PN rechaza estos electrones hacia la rejilla metálica.
Estos electrones luego circulan a través del circuito al que está conectado el panel, para regresar a través del contacto posterior en el semiconductor, donde nuevamente son atraídos a un núcleo.
Transformación de corriente continua alternativamente: el papel del inversor.
Basicamente el funcionamiento de las placas solares consiste en recibir la luz solar y transformarla en corriente continua CC que luego el inversor transformará en corriente alterna CA que es la que usamos en nuestro hogares.

La intensidad, la tensión y, por lo tanto, la potencia, dependen del número de celdas en serie y en paralelo.
El voltaje de salida de un panel es continuo , lo cual es conveniente para recargar una batería o alimentar una caravana.
Para usar esta corriente en una casa o revenderla a un operador, necesita conectar un inversor , que transforma la corriente continua en una corriente alternativa de 220V y 50Hz .


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