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ENERGÍA SOLAR EN EL HOGAR: TODO LO QUE NECESITAS SABER Y CONSEJOS

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El periódico The Daily Green ha publicado un artículo que hace las veces de una resumida guía general acerca de la instalación y funcionamiento de paneles solares.




La idea de la guía es explicar a grandes rasgos algunas cosas sobre paneles solares, inversores eléctricos, instalaciones y emplazamientos para fomentar que los ciudadanos comiencen a considerar la posibilidad de tener energía solar en sus hogares.




Por lo que queremos ayudaros ahora a que también tengamos una pequeña guía sobre esta energía y que nos permita el poder aplicarla en nuestro día a día y en el hogar.

 

DEFINICIONES SOBRE LA ENERGÍA SOLAR

  • Paneles solares o módulos solares fotovoltaicos:

    También llamados PV por sus siglas en inglés. Son dispositivos que convierten la energía del sol en corriente eléctrica.

    Los paneles solares vienen en distintos tamaños y distintas potencias, pero los módulos típicamente usados para una casa son módulos de 200 Watts y 1, 3 metros cuadrado (14 pies cuadrados)

  • Cadena de paneles (Arrays):

    Son un conjunto de módulos fotovoltaicos  interconectadospara generar un monto de electricidad significativo.

    Por ejemplo 5 paneles de 200 Watts generan 1.000 watt en conjunto. Tipicamente en una casa se usan conjuntos de paneles que lleguen a generar entre 2.000 y 5.000 watts.

  • Inversores:

    En electricidad un inversor es un dispositivo que convierte la corriente continuaque generan los paneles en corriente alterna, que es la que usamos en los hogares.

  • Sistema solar compatible con la red: 

    Es un sistema eléctrico compuesto principalmente por un conjunto de PV montados en los techos o en el suelo y un inversor.

    Este sistema esta preparado para poder interactuar con la red de servicios públicos. Típicamente la energía generada por los paneles va primero al abastecimiento de la casa y el excedente se vuelca a la red.

  • Kilowatt/ Hora (kwh): 

    un kilowatt = 1,000 watts por hora es igual a 1 kilowatt /hora. Las compañías de electricidad te cobran de acuerdo a la cantidad de kwh que has usado en un mes, o en un bimestre o trimestre, dependiendo del país.

FACTORES A TENER EN CUENTA PARA COLOCAR PANELES SOLARES

Hay varios factores principales a tener en cuenta a la hora de decidir si te conviene poner paneles solares en tu casa y cómo hacerlo. Estos factores son:

Requerimientos diarios de energía:

  •  Con la instalación de un buen conjunto de paneles solares se puede abastecer parcial o totalmente las necesidades energéticas de un hogar.
  • A la hora de invertir en energía solar siempre te conviene empezar por la intención de cubrir los requerimientos de tu hogar.
  • Si luego tienes excedente mejor pero si no lo tiene al menos tendrás energía gratis para tu consumo personal durante más de 30 años. Entre 30 y 40 años es la vida media útil de un sistema de paneles solares.

Si quieres poner manos a la obra:

  • lo primero que hay que hacer es fijarse en la factura de electricidad (o si no figura llamar a la compañía) y averiguar cuanto gastas usualmente en términos de kw/h por día.
  • Es ideal tener las boletas de todo un año para poder medir la variación del consumo de acuerdo a las distintas estaciones.
  • Si ya estas hablando con la compañía aprovecha y pregúntales si hay algún acuerdo para volcar la energía solar a la red. .

Espacios libres de sombra:

  •  Como los paneles solares necesitan recibir directamente la luz del sol para poder generar energía, necesitas disponer de algún lugar que este libre de sombras, es decir que tenga sol directo todo el tiempo o al menos desde las 10 am a las 3pm.
  • Entre estas cinco horas el sol esta al máximo de su potencial, antes y después la luz que llega del sol casi no sirve para producir energía.
  • Para saber si en enero ese gran árbol del vecino dará sombra a tus paneles puedes recurrir a herramientas de predicción de sombra como cartas solares.

 

El presupuesto:

  • Hay que tener en cuenta que los paneles y su instalación no son nada baratos. Algunos países tienen incentivos para su compra como la deducción de impuestos, pero aún así uno tiene que pensar que la instalación de paneles solares es una inversión a la largo plazo.

Para que los paneles solares reciban mejor la luz del sol:

  • Mejoren su rendimiento también será necesario colocarlos en la orientación correcta.
  • La inclinación de los paneles también debe ser la justa para recoger lo mejor posible los rayos solares.
  • Si los paneles solares están mal orientados o colocados en posición incorrecta se perderá eficiencia y estarás desperdiciando gran parte de su capacidad.

Por otro lado,

  • también es obligatorio que sepas todo lo referente q la normativa sobre la instalación de paneles solares.
  • Si eres de países como España, debes saber que la legislación es muy restrictiva, por ejemplo en los lugares donde se permiten instalar los paneles.
  • Además, las tasas que hay que pagar son enormes, así que debes calcular si te merece la pena y si podrás amortizar la inversión.

CÁLCULO PARA LA INSTALACIÓN DE PANELES SOLARES

Te ofrecemos una serie de cálculos para que te hagas una idea de cuánto te puede costar una instalación casera de paneles solares.

  • Una vez que tengas los números claros, saca las cuentas de cuantos paneles solares necesitarías instalar según tus gastos. Ahora te mostramos una fórmula para calcular la potencia que debes comprar en paneles solares
  • Paso unoDivide por 5 el promedio de kwh que gastas al día, ya que 5 son las horas máximas de aprovechamiento del sol (recuerda de 10am a 3 pm)
  • Paso dos: Multiplica la cifra que te dio anteriormente por 1.43 para restar las pérdidas promedio del sistema. Integrados los pasos la fórmula sería: X (tu consumo) Kwh/día dividido 5 por 1.43.
  • Con esta fórmula podrás saber las medidas del sistema de paneles en términos de Kilowatts.
  • Ejemplo ¿que necesitas si consumes 20 kwh/ día?20kwh/5h = 4kw 4kw x 1.43= 5.7kw
  • 5.7kw es el tamaño del sistema que necesitas para producir 20kwh/día.
  • ¿Cuánto puede llegar a salir esto? En el mercado mundial los sistemas PV cuestan entre $7,000 y $9,000 dólares por kilowatt. Siguiendo con el ejemplo anterior deberías multiplicar 5.7kw por el valor del mercado.
  • Ejemplos: 5.7kw x $7,000 = $40,040. y 5.7kw x $9,000 = $51,480. Tendrías entonces un costo inicial de entre 40 mil y 50 mil dólares para poner tu sistema solar.

Esperemos que este resumen les haya gustado, aquí en Erenovable estamos abiertos a correcciones, sugerencias y aportes de datos que pueden hacer nuestros lectores a través de sus comentarios.
Destacamos también que el Dailygreen recomienda para quienes saben inglés la guía Solar Living Sourcebook.

VENTAJAS DE LA ENERGÍA SOLAR EN EL HOGAR

Uno de los principales objetivos de las personas que instalan paneles solares caseros es ser autosuficiente. Si bien la legislación en España es muy restrictiva, es posible contar con sistemas de apoyo también a los sistemas energéticos más tradicionales.
Los paneles solares pueden ser usados con objetivos muy diferentes. Desde grandes instalaciones para producir electricidad a gran escala, hasta pequeños aparatos diseñados para servir de calefacción en el hogar. Las aplicaciones de la energía solar para el hogar también pueden ser usadas en calefacción o electricidad.

Los paneles solares están diseñados para aprovechar la energía de los rayos solares.

Por tanto, es una energía limpia, que no contamina y no contribuye a la contaminación ni a la producción de gases de efecto invernadero.
Por otro lado, es una energía totalmente renovable, es decir, al usar paneles solares en el hogar podremos decir que no contribuimos a agotar los recursos del planeta.
Por otro lado, la energía solar es una energía muy segura. No precisa de realizar operaciones de combustión ni tiene ningún riesgo de seguridad demasiado elevado.

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