Naturally, the positioning of the photovoltaic panels depends on:
- Geographic area
HOW TO ORIENT THE SOLAR PANELS
So let’s see how to correctly orientate and tilt the photovoltaic panels to obtain a good result.
Orientation and inclination for the positioning of photovoltaic panels
Orientation and inclination of the photovoltaic panels
The orientation and inclincación of the photovoltaic panels depends on the latitude in which we are. The optimal orientation of the panels can be south or north and the optimum inclination will depend on the latitude of the place, the time of year in which you want to use it and whether or not you have your own generator set.
inclination of the solar panels depending on the time of year
Bearing in mind that on some occasion it is not possible to reach the appropriate inclination and orientation conditions, it will be necessary to evaluate, in any case, the losses of incident radiation due to the location conditions.
The objective is to achieve the maximum perpendicularity of the solar panel with respect to the received solar radiation. In this way the energy obtained by the photovoltaic cells will be optimized.
Taking into account the installation of photovoltaic panels in the Italian territory to obtain the best performance, the best solution is to mount them with an inclination oriented towards the south.
When in fact the photovoltaic panels are positioned towards the south:
- They collect sunlight at best;
- Thanks to the rain, a kind of self-cleaning occurs.
We do not recommend mounting the photovoltaic panels in a horizontal position, in fact, even if in this position they can provide a good efficiency of up to 90%, they can not be kept clean with the help of rain. In fact, they would require manual cleaning.
In addition, it is not advisable to mount the photovoltaic panels vertically. In fact, in this position it will not be possible to achieve a good supply of sunlight, since they will only reach 70% of their power.
A specific study must be carried out (which allows the alignment of the sun according to the passage of the stations) to understand to which slope the photovoltaic panels should be mounted . Generally, if you choose to set up a fixed installation, you must place the solar panels at an inclination of 35 °. For the installation of mobile photovoltaic panels, the inclination must always be equal to 60 ° during the winter period, while it must be equal to 20 ° during the summer season.
In conclusion, therefore, you should always prefer a photovoltaic panel that tilts to the south, although in some extreme cases it is possible to evaluate other types of inclination.
For example, if there are structural problems or if these places to the south create a shaded area that is annoying for those who live in the complex, it will be necessary to proceed with an installation taking into account other solutions and inclinations.
Therefore, before installing these panels, it would be best to consult an expert, to understand how photovoltaic panels can be installed, whether they should be placed vertically on the parapet, or horizontally if they are placed in a specific area of the house.
Choice of position according to the season cycle
The choice of the position of the photovoltaic panels can also be influenced by the geographical position and the cycle of the stations. As mentioned above, photovoltaic panels can also change position according to the seasons. So, the first thing you should do is choose the correct tilt when you are installing them , so if they are installed during the summer, you will have to choose the best positioning of the solar panels for this season.
During the winter period, on the other hand, given that the average daily insolation decreases due to the force of circumstances, it would be better to contact a technician to be able to reposition them and obtain the best performance.
Incidence of shadows
To achieve the maximum use of a photovoltaic solar energy system , care must be taken of the incidence of possible shadows on the panels, both nearby (objects that momentarily cover the direct radiation of the Sun) and distant shadows (elements of the orography and / or landscape that hide the Sun from the area where the solar installation is located.
The effect of the shadows must be evaluated with great care when determining the location of the panels, since the shadows on the panels produce a significant reduction in production, especially if they occur in the central hours of the day (maximum insolation).
Separation between rows of solar panels
The separation between rows of photovoltaic panels must guarantee the non-overlapping of shadows between the rows of panels during the winter / summer solstice months.
This distance will be determined by the following expression, in the case of panels arranged horizontally (on a plane).
d = (h / tanH) · cosA
d, is the minimum distance between panel lines.
h, is the height of the panel line (vertically, from the top point on the floor).
tanH, is the tangent of the solar height (angle) in the most unfavorable month in our latitude.
cosA, is the cosine of the solar azimuth in the most unfavorable month (December) at 10 solar hours.