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Para saber CUÁNTA ENERGÍA PUEDE PRODUCIR UN PANEL SOLAR EN UN DÍA hayb que analizar algunos factores descriptos a continuaciòn.


Le mostramos cómo usar la Ecuación 1 para calcular la cantidad de energía (vatios-hora) que un determinado dispositivo utilizará en un determinado período de tiempo, una vez que sepa cuánta potencia (vatios) usa ese dispositivo mientras está funcionando.


Del mismo modo que los dispositivos eléctricos se clasifican por la potencia que utilizan mientras están funcionando, los paneles solares se clasifican por la cantidad de energía que producen.

Si observa la parte trasera de un panel solar, verá una placa que enumera la potencia máxima del panel (generalmente abreviado Wmp).

Verá también otras cosas enumeradas allí: una de ellas es la Vmp (la tensión del panel a la potencia máxima) y otra es la Imp (la corriente del panel a la potencia máxima).

En nuestro  panel solar de 80 vatios,  el Vmp es de 17,3 y el Imp de 4,7 amperios. 17,3 x 4,7 = 81,3 vatios.

Sería bueno y simple si pudiera usar la Ecuación 1 para multiplicar la potencia nominal Wmp (80 vatios en este ejemplo) de un panel solar por el número total de horas de luz solar para calcular la energía que ese panel puede producir en un día. Pero, no puede, y aquí está el por qué:

1) En primer lugar, las calificaciones del panel solar no son realmente correctas.

La potencia de salida de un panel solar es más alta cuando el panel no está alimentando nada, pero ese no es realmente un número tan útil, ¿o sí?

Cuando el panel está conectado a una carga, el voltaje disminuye a medida que alimenta la carga, y la potencia de salida total del panel es menor que la potencia nominal.

Desafortunadamente, los paneles solares se clasifican por la potencia que producen mientras no están alimentando nada.

¿Cuàl serìa la soluciòn a este problema?

La solución rápida a este problema es utilizar los amperios nominales (Imp) e ignorar la potencia nominal Wmp o Max (como los 80 vatios de nuestro ejemplo).

Esto se debe a que su voltaje de carga típico es más parecido a 13V. 13V X 4.7A = 61.1 vatios, no 80 vatios).

2) La segunda razón es que la potencia producida por un panel solar depende de cuán poderosa es la luz solar, y el poder de la luz solar cambia a lo largo del día de la mañana a la noche, alcanzando un pico al mediodía.

También cambia con el clima, así como a través de las estaciones, y es diferente en diferentes lugares de la Tierra en un momento dado.

Con el fin de producir clasificaciones consistentes para paneles solares, los paneles solares se prueban bajo lo que se llama Peak Sun.

Un Sol Máximo se define como 1000 vatios de luz solar por metro cuadrado de superficie, y es aproximadamente igual a la potencia del sol al mediodía en un día despejado en el ecuador.

Para el resto de nosotros, el resto del tiempo, el sol es menos poderoso que 1000 vatios por metro cuadrado.

Entonces, ¿qué puedes hacer para calcular cuánta energía puede producir un panel solar en un día?

Bueno, ignorando el hecho de que Wmp no es realmente correcto, vamos a mostrarte cómo usar esa calificación del panel solar, y un número promedio de horas de Peak Sun, en la Ecuación 1.

Lo que hace esto posible es los mapas de insolación solar publicado por el NREL (National Renewable Energy Lab). Estos mapas muestran las horas promedio de Peak Sun para ubicaciones en todo el mundo. Estos mapas están disponibles para los Estados Unidos en  US Solar Radiation Maps .

No queriendo parecer TOO útil, las unidades usadas en estos mapas son “kWh /”. No se preocupe, puede leer los números codificados por colores como “Horas de Sol Máximo por día” y conectarlos a la Ecuación 1 con la calificación de su panel solar para calcular la cantidad de energía (en vatios-hora) que una un panel solar particular puede producir en un día:

Imp * Horas de sol máximas / día * 13V = vatios-horas / día

En nuestro ejemplo de panel solar de 80 vatios:
4.7A * (5 horas como ejemplo) * 13V (estimación) = 305 vatios- horas / día.

Ahora, simplemente multiplique este número por 30 (para obtener vatios-horas totales en un mes), luego divida por 1000 (para obtener kilovatios-hora) y puede comparar este número con los kWh que figuran en su factura de electricidad.

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