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COMO FUNCIONA LA ENERGIA FOTOVOLTAICA

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Existen diferentes formas de convertir la energía del sol en electricidad o calor utilizable. Las tecnologías más aplicadas en muchos paises son los paneles solares .

COMO FUNCIONA LA ENERGIA FOTOVOLTAICA

A continuacion explicaremos el proceso y los componentes de un sistema solar fotovoltaico para entender como funciona la energia fotovoltaica .

El sol se convierte en kWh

Los paneles solares también se denominan paneles fotovoltaicos, o paneles fotovoltaicos para abreviar (PV es una abreviatura del inglés ‘Photo Voltaic’). En nuestros proyectos también nos referimos a los sistemas solares fotovoltaicos. Los paneles solares convierten la luz solar en electricidad.

Con la ayuda de un inversor, la corriente continua producida se convierte en corriente alterna, que luego puede usarse para uso propio, o puede ser devuelta a la red eléctrica. Puede encontrar más información sobre el funcionamiento de los paneles solares en el articulo  siguiente  .

¿Cómo funciona la energia solar fotovoltaica?

COMO FUNCIONA LA ENERGIA FOTOVOLTAICA

Una instalación fotovoltaica (PV), o de energía solar, convierte la luz solar en electricidad. En tal instalación, los paneles solares recogen energía solar en forma de corriente continua.

Luego, un inversor cambia esa corriente continua en corriente alterna para que pueda utilizar la energía en su hogar. El excedente de electricidad se suministra a la red eléctrica.

1. Paneles

solares Los paneles solares o paneles fotovoltaicos consisten en diferentes células solares. Cuando la luz solar cae sobre una célula solar de este tipo, los electrones en la célula comienzan a moverse y se crea corriente continua.

2. Inversor

El inversor es el corazón de toda instalación solar. Este dispositivo convierte la corriente continua de los paneles solares en corriente alterna. Durante esa conversión es muy importante que se pierda la menor energía posible. La eficiencia de un inversor es, por lo tanto, esencial.

COMO FUNCIONA LA ENERGIA  FOTOVOLTAICA

Las tareas de un inversor

Las tareas de un inversor son tan variadas como exigentes:

1. Conversión de CC a CA con bajas pérdidas
Una de las características más importantes de un inversor es la eficiencia de conversión. Este valor indica qué parte de la energía ingresada como corriente continua regresa en forma de corriente alterna. Los dispositivos modernos funcionan con una eficiencia de alrededor del 98 por ciento.

2. Seguimiento de MPP
La curva de potencia de un panel solar depende en gran medida de la intensidad de radiación y la temperatura del panel solar, en otras palabras, de los valores que cambian constantemente durante el día. Por lo tanto, el inversor debe encontrar el punto de funcionamiento óptimo y monitorearlo permanentemente en la curva de corriente. De esta forma, obtiene la máxima potencia de los paneles fotovoltaicos en cada situación.

El punto de funcionamiento óptimo se llama ‘Punto de máxima potencia’ (MPP). Por lo tanto, buscar y seguir el MPP se denomina “seguimiento de MPP”. El seguimiento de MPP es muy importante para la producción de energía de una instalación de energía solar.

3. Monitoreo y protección
Por un lado, el inversor monitorea la salida de energía de la instalación solar y señala cualquier problema. Por otro lado, monitorea la red eléctrica a la que está conectado el inversor. En caso de un problema en la red, el inversor debe desconectar inmediatamente la instalación de la red, por razones de seguridad o para soportar la red, según los requisitos del operador local de la red.

Además, en la mayoría de los casos, el inversor tiene un dispositivo que puede interrumpir de forma segura el flujo de los paneles. Cuando la luz brilla, los paneles fotovoltaicos están siempre activos y, por lo tanto, no se pueden apagar. Si el inversor se desconecta durante el funcionamiento, puede provocar arcos peligrosos que no se apagan debido a la corriente continua. Si el dispositivo de apagado está integrado directamente en el inversor, la instalación y el cableado se pueden llevar a cabo considerablemente más fácilmente.

4. Comunicación
Las interfaces de comunicación en el inversor permiten verificar y monitorear todos los parámetros, datos de operación y rendimientos. Los datos se pueden recuperar y los parámetros para el inversor se pueden configurar a través de una conexión de red, bus de campo industrial como RS485 o de forma inalámbrica a través de SMA Bluetooth®.

En la mayoría de los casos, los datos se recuperan a través de un registrador de datos, que recopila los datos de diferentes inversores, los procesa y, si lo desea, los reenvía a un portal de datos en línea gratuito (por ejemplo, SMA Sunny Portal en combinación con un Sunny WebBox, Sunny Home Manager o Webconnect )

5. Gestión de la temperatura

La temperatura en la carcasa del inversor también tiene un efecto en la eficiencia. Si la temperatura aumenta demasiado, el inversor debe reducir su capacidad. Por lo tanto, bajo ciertas circunstancias, la potencia disponible del panel no se puede utilizar por completo.
Por un lado, la ubicación de configuración puede influir en la temperatura, ya que un ambiente constantemente frío es ideal.

Por otro lado, la temperatura depende directamente del funcionamiento del inversor: incluso una eficiencia del 98 por ciento significa una pérdida de potencia del dos por ciento (en forma de calor). Si la capacidad de instalación es de 10 kW, la capacidad térmica máxima sigue siendo de 200 vatios.

Es por eso que un sistema de enfriamiento eficiente y confiable para la carcasa es muy importante, por ejemplo, el concepto de enfriamiento “OptiCool” de SMA. El diseño térmico óptimo de los componentes garantiza que puedan liberar su calor directamente al medio ambiente, mientras que toda la carcasa actúa como un disipador de calor al mismo tiempo. Esto permite que los inversores funcionen a la capacidad nominal máxima, incluso a temperaturas ambiente de hasta 50 ° C.

6. Protección
Con una carcasa resistente a la intemperie, idealmente construida de acuerdo con la clase de protección IP65, el inversor se puede instalar en el exterior en cualquier ubicación deseada. Esto tiene la ventaja de que el inversor se puede instalar más cerca de los paneles, como resultado de lo cual los costos para el cableado de CC relativamente caro son más bajos.

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