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¿De qué material están hechos los paneles solares?

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A continuación analizaremos de que estan hechos los paneles solares , el material que se utiliza para lograr el mágico efecto fotovoltaico donde los rayos solares se transforman en electricidad

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¿De qué material están hechos los paneles solares?

Eso depende del tipo de panel solar que esté viendo. Existen dos tipos principales de paneles solares, o módulos, que se utilizan en instalaciones de techo y montadas en el suelo: silicio cristalino y película delgada.

Paneles solares de silicio cristalino

¿De qué están hechos los paneles solares?
Módulo policristalino JinkoSolar

Los paneles solares de silicio cristalino (c-Si) son los más comunes. Son los que parecen cuadrículas rectangulares azules o negras de cuadrados más pequeños. Esos cuadrados más pequeños son células solares de silicio, y se unen en una serie para formar un circuito. Cuantas más celdas estén interconectadas en una serie, más electricidad producirá el sistema.

Los paneles cristalinos se agrupan más comúnmente en paneles de 60 y 72 celdas. Los paneles más pequeños también se utilizan en el mercado fuera de la red. Estas series de celdas están conectadas juntas generalmente por barras colectoras. Cintas de barras colectoras (típicamente hechas de aluminio o cobre con plata) unen celdas solares para crear voltajes más altos. Cuantas más barras colectoras atraviesen una celda solar, más electrones generados pueden atravesar, y aumenta la potencia y la eficiencia del panel solar.

Hay dos tipos principales de diseños de siliciocristalino: policristalino y monocristalino .

¿De qué están hechos los paneles solares?
Módulos monocristalinos solares LONGi

El silicio monocristalino solar se hace cultivando un solo cristal. Debido a que estos cristales son generalmente de forma ovalada, los paneles monocristalinos se cortan en los patrones distintivos que les dan su apariencia reconocible: las células de silicio en rodajas exponen las esquinas faltantes en la estructura en forma de rejilla. El marco de cristal en un monocristalino es uniforme, produce un color azul constante y sin marcas de grano, lo que le brinda la mejor pureza y los más altos niveles de eficiencia.

El policristalino solar se hace vertiendo silicio fundido en un molde. Sin embargo, debido a este método de construcción, la estructura cristalina se formará de manera imperfecta, creando límites donde la formación de cristales se rompe. Esto le da al silicio policristalino su aspecto distintivo y granulado, ya que el patrón tipo piedra preciosa resalta los límites del cristal. Estas impurezas en el cristal hacen que los módulos policristalinos sean menos eficientes y también más baratos que los monocristalinos.

¿De qué están hechos los paneles solares?
Primer módulo de película delgada Solar CdTe

Paneles solares de película delgada

Los paneles de película delgada se usan más tradicionalmente en grandes instalaciones a gran escala. Se deposita un semiconductor delgado sobre sustratos de vidrio, plástico o papel de aluminio.

La película delgada, por su nombre, puede ser muy delgada y, a veces, flexible. Su peso ligero y flexibilidad ha llevado a su uso en techos curvos, automóviles y otras instalaciones únicas.

Hay tres divisiones comunes de película delgada: silicio amorfo (a-Si), teluro de cadmio (CdTe) y seleniuro de cobre, indio y galio (CIGS). Las células solares de película delgada a menudo se crean a través de un proceso de evaporación conjunta de productos químicos en una lámina de vidrio. Tienen una eficiencia de conversión menor que el silicio, pero reducen la cantidad de material requerido para crear la celda.

Ensamble del módulo

En general, todos los paneles solares consisten en células solares con una capa de vidrio en la parte delantera y una lámina protectora en la parte posterior. Generalmente hechas de un tipo de polímero, las láminas posteriores se adhieren a la parte posterior de los módulos para proporcionar aislamiento eléctrico. Las láminas traseras blancas son las más comunes, aunque se están utilizando más láminas negras en módulos de alta eficiencia que buscan una cierta estética.

Los marcos de aluminio generalmente terminan un módulo. Añaden resistencia al panel y protegen el borde del vidrio. El marco ayuda a que los sistemas de montaje y montaje se unan al panel para asegurarlo al techo o al suelo.

Pero todo esto está cambiando. Con los nuevos diseños bifaciales (cuando las células solares están expuestas en los lados frontal y posterior del panel), ya no se necesitan láminas posteriores. Algunos paneles también están sin marco, optando por intercalar células solares entre dos piezas de vidrio o usar láminas posteriores más resistentes que no justifican un marco.

 

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